14 Rare Diseases You Should Know

14 Rare Diseases You Should Know - General Knowledge - News

14 Rare Diseases You Should Know

The Rarest Diseases Known to Humans

Living organisms, including humans, often suffer from diseases during their lifetime. There are over 25,000 diseases, with about 7,000 categorized as rare, and only approximately 400 have effective treatments. Here is a list of some of the rarest diseases known to humans:

1. Hematidrosis

Hemidrosis, also known as haematidrosis or hematohidrosis, is an ultra-rare condition that causes the patient to sweat blood. It results from capillary blood vessels feeding the sweat glands rupturing. Symptoms include oozing blood from the umbilicus, nails, forehead, and other surfaces of the skin.

2. Vicarious Menstruation

Vicarious menstruation is a rare condition that causes bleeding during periods in females who have not yet started their menstrual cycle. This can result from stress or hormonal imbalances.

3. Mitchell Disease

Mitchell disease is a rare neurological disorder that affects movement, vision, and hearing. It was named after Mitchell Herndon, a teenager who died from the condition with only two other diagnosed cases before.

4. Fatal Insomnia

Fatal insomnia is an ultra-rare neurodegenerative prion disease that starts with gradual sleeping problems, eventually leading to complete insomnia. It results in dementia, coordination issues, and speech difficulties.

5. Kleine-Levin Syndrome

Kleine-Levin syndrome is the opposite of fatal insomnia, characterized by excessive sleeping (hypersomnia) and often accompanied by hypersexuality, compulsive eating behavior, and cognitive & behavioral disturbances.

6. The Laughing Disease (Kuru)

Popularly known as the laughing disease, Urbach-Wiethe disease is a rare disorder that thrived in the 50s and 60s among the Fore people inhabiting the highlands of New Guinea. It causes involuntary, rapid tremors known as “trembling.”

7. Urbach-Wiethe Disease

Urbach-Wiethe disease is characterized by a hoarse voice, scarring on the skin, and poor wound healing. It destroyed the amygdala (the part of the brain responsible for processing emotions) in a woman known as SM, making her fearless and anxiety-free or completely unreactive to scary movies.

8. Lipodystrophy

Lipodystrophy is a rare disease that causes the patient to lose fat from specific body parts while gaining weight in others. The inconsistency often makes individuals appear older than they really are.

9. Cherubism

Cherubism is a rare disorder that causes the lower portion of the face to become prominent due to the mandible losing its bone cavity, which the body replaces with excessive fibrous tissue. Usually, it heals as the child grows; however, in extremely rare cases, it may persist into adulthood.

10. Dublin-Johnson Syndrome

Dublin-Johnson syndrome is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive disorder often caused by excess conjugated bilirubin in the serum. Symptoms include jaundice and abnormalities of the gastric mucosa, fatigue, and fever.

11. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that affects how the patient’s body processes some amino acids. It can be fatal, causing the urine to have a maple syrup order.

12. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a severe skin reaction characterized by peeling and blistering, leading to painful raw areas. Complications from SJS can lead to sepsis, multiple organ failure, dehydration, and pneumonia.

13. Zimmermann-Laband Syndrome (ZLS)

The Zimmermann-Laband syndrome is an ultra-rare genetic disease mainly characterized by distal phalanges, coarse facial appearance, hypo/aplastic nails, and gingival fibromatosis. A patient with ZLS has a 50% chance of passing it to their offspring.

14. Fairbank’s Disease

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), commonly known as Fairbank’s disease, is a rare genetic disorder affecting bone growth. It is characterized by flattened and fragmented epiphyses. Danny DeVito, the actor known for “It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia,” was diagnosed with Fairbank’s disease and stands at 4 feet 10 inches.

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